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How To Write A Scientific Report

hi everyone today we're going to go

through one of the most important things

that you learn in high school science

and also one of the things that students

tend to struggle with the most and

that's how to write a scientific report

let's get started so the first thing

that your report needs is a title and

the title should give the reader some

idea as to what to expect when they read

through your PAC report what are you

discovering what are you investigating

what are the key things in your report

so that if people wanted to search for

it on google or through some sort of

database that could search for keywords

and it'll come up in your title so it

needs to be something that summarizes

your whole report in just a handful of

words usually about 6 to 8 words is fine

in this particular example we're going

to have two balloons and one of these

balloons is going to go into the fridge

where we expect it to contract or shrink

because of the cold air and so an

appropriate title for this particular

experiment could be something along the

lines of an investigation of the

relationship between cold air and

contraction in most scientific

experiments there has to be some sort of

purpose or goal behind it and we call

this our aim in this case the aim is to

examine the effect of air temperature on

the size of the balloon next up we have

our hypothesis and the hypothesis is an

educated guess about what you think will

happen in this experiment so I use the

word educated because hopefully you've

learned something about some aspects of

this experiment in class already so for

example in this experiment you might

have led that heating things up expands

things and cooling things down and

contracts things so we're going to use

that information to create our

hypothesis in this case that could go

something like the balloon that's at

room temperature which we call the

control will stay the same

while the balloon that's cooled down

will contract a control in any

experiment is basically something that

stays the same it provides a baseline to

compare your results to

now going into what's called the method

part of the report and we're going to

start by listing the materials that

we'll need so you want to be really

specific in this part of the report

especially when it comes to using

different sizes of things so if you're

using different size beakers actually

specify what size of beaker it is

whether it's a 500 ml beaker or a 250 ml

beaker

if using different weights of things say

how heavy it is whether it's a two

kilogram weight or a five kilogram

weight and also list the quantities of

things as well in your procedure section

you basically write a step by step

recipe that uses all of the materials

that you've mentioned in the materials

section so that anyone can pick up your

report and replicate your experiment

perfectly without having seen it before

in this example we'll measure the

circumference --is of each of the

balloons and we'll put one of them in

the fridge and after 24 hours we'll take

it out of the fridge we'll measure the

circumference is again and we can

compare whether the one that was in the

fridge has shrunk in size any more than

what would normally shrink in any way

there are a couple of ways that you can

represent your results in your results

section you can have qualitative data

which is when you're using words to

describe what happened like the color of

something how something looks or sounds

or feels you can also have quantitative

data which is using numbers and the

units of measurement like seconds

kilograms centimeters and you can then

use that data to create graphs and

tables so qualitative data is describing

what happened using words and sentences

and quantitative data is representing

your results as numbers because I've

measured the sizes of the balloons and

I'm representing that as a percentage to

allow comparison between the two

balloons I'm using quantitative data I

could simply describe the balloons and

say that the one in the fridge is a lot

smaller than the one that wasn't in the

fridge but that's nowhere near as

precise as actually being able to use

measurements to compare the two sizes

in your discussion section guess what

you discuss your results you try and

link the theories and the concepts

you've learnt in class to explain what

you observed in your experiment and in

high school that usually involves

answering questions that are designed to

get you thinking about this structure

and to get you linking the concepts in

class with what you've observed this

varies from teacher to teacher but

sometimes in your discussion you can

talk about the limitations in your

experiments so what are some things that

might have affected your results and how

could you overcome those in the future

you may also want to discuss some ways

you can improve the experiment as a

whole so how could you do things more

efficiently or how can you do things

differently or use different equipment

to try and get more accurate results

lastly we have our conclusion and with

my students I generally expect them to

restate what the aim was and the same

way that that was achieved and why and

also restate what their hypothesis was

what they expected to happen and whether

that actually happened and why

and sometimes only part of the

hypothesis is supported and so then you

can say the hypothesis which was bla bla

bla was partially supported and then you

would go on to elaborate why that's the

case you can also try and come up with

implications of your findings so try and

link your results with the real world

and why is this information that we've

learned through this experiment useful

to us in a real life scenario so that's

it we've gone through the main sections

of a scientific report the title

aim hypothesis materials procedure

results discussion and conclusion this

is usually what I expect from my

students at my school and this video is

really just designed to give you an

overall guide your teacher might have a

slightly different way of doing things

and that's fine but just double check a

few things with them if you're not sure

thanks for watching and I'll see you

next time

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