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How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper

there are two really important things to

consider style and structure will take

structure first so this is a paper I

wrote last year just kind of shame

quietly so this was Monthly Notices of

the Royal Astronomical Society so you

kind of give your title of the paper the

title is like the headline for your

article it's the first thing that people

will see so you want to grab their

attention but you also want to tell them

what they're gonna find in the paper

certainly unless the people you've

worked with so that's me he had built

and then these were colleagues that I've

worked with mice project here's the

abstract this really is a short

paragraph that will help you sell your

paper to a potential reader if someone

doesn't have to read the whole paper if

they want to get the gist of what's

going on every paper needs to include an

introduction this should be a short

overview of what your studies about and

what you found and basically why why

should someone be interested in it you

should then move on to what we call a

literature review which is essentially

talking about other studies that people

have done trying to find the same thing

or something similar and really what

sparked the idea for your piece of work

after the introduction you want to go on

to the methodology so this really

explains how you went about doing your

experiment this is the equipment you

used and the ways set it up and you

really want to be as specific as you can

here because it's really important that

anybody who would want to do the

experiment again should be able to

reproduce the experiment and get the

same results I so that goes on for a

little bit and then you can get to the

kind of

main part of the data it's the nice

graphs that kind of is your main results

what did I find out what did I discover

did anything go wrong did you learn

something that you weren't expecting or

was everything that you assumed proved

right this is where you will put most of

your tables or your grass representing

the most interesting parts of your data

don't worry about putting everything

here but just enough to tell the story

and to represent exactly what you found

then I've got a section where I kind of

compare it to other people who kind of

got similar datasets but different bit

different might say well do I find

something that's similar to them or do I

find something is a bit different what

does that kind of mean what you want to

do is provide a discussion this is where

you discuss the implications or bring in

some of the context from the

introduction and analyze your results

the end of the paper should be a

conclusion which will really talk about

the novelty and significance of your

work it will sum up the paper in one

fell swoop and show the reader exactly

why you've done the study what you

learned and what might change as a

result of the work that you've done and

also use it to to point to any work that

can be done in the future or work that

you might be doing as a result of

following up from this study and then

finally you have to finish with a long

list of references of all the other

papers excited so I might say oh I use

this method by so-and-so

I have to kind of list so that someone

else reading my paper can then look up

this paper and see exactly how that

method you worked

make sure when you're planning

experiment or doing an experiment to

write down everything you read that was

useful just think one day somebody might

reference your paper so next you want to

think about stuff the most important

thing is to keep the whole paper clear

and concise don't speculate or

exaggerate keep to the facts make sure

the paper reads with one voice this is

really important especially if you're

working in a group and you're each

writing a different section someone

needs to take the role to oversee the

whole piece and make sure it flows

smoothly and you can't tell who's

written which sections it's important to

use your own words don't just copy and

paste from something

if the explanation is really good don't

overlook grammar and punctuation

it might sound boring but these are

really important and you don't want a

reader to be distracted by silly

mistakes that you've made you won't want

to use too much jargon or technical

terms but equally try not to use any

slang or words which made a to the paper

you want the paper to be read in fifty

years as it would be today a good idea

is to ask someone from outside of the

project to look it over for you they

won't be lost in the detail and they'll

be able to tell you whether it really

makes sense or not I think my advice

would be you need to obviously check

that no one's written this before before

you start putting too much too much time

and effort into it this happens to

professional researchers relatively

often you kind of spend lots of time and

effort writing doing some results and

writing a paper anyone know someone did

this last year I think you kind of need

to be realistic there from with research

projects obviously it's kind of they

kind of never end you kind of say this

was using what they set and I kind of

found like one or two results and then I

found something else that's a bit

interesting salty that as well and then

you find something else lots of

interesting as well and like there's a

risk that this pen was never-ending so

you've kind of kind of say this paper is

just gonna be this one idea we're gonna

do that and that's it so your paper is

now ready

well next have a look at the journal

website and find out exactly how you

should submit most journals have a

web-based submission system which just

involves you filling in a form online

and then submitting the article as a

file so once you submitted your paper

somebody an editorial team will have a

look at it and make sure it's a good fit

for the journal

next up is peer-review and this is where

the editorial team will send your paper

to two experts who will have a look at

the paper and decide whether it's good

enough for publication they'll be

looking for originality significance and

rigor

they'll be looking to see whether this

particular study has been done before

they'll be looking at other work and

seeing how much of an impact it is

likely to make in a field and also

whether the work has been done correctly

it's very rare that a paper gets

accepted first time the peer review

process is really designed to be helpful

and aims to make a paper as good as it

can be before publication

reviewers tend to have really good

advice so have a look at what they've

said think about it

rework the article and send it back

after peer review the journal will make

some final tweaks to the formatting of

the paper and then it's ready

publication and sooner or later it will

be published in the journal you'll be

able to read it online and send copies

to all your friends

you