BUT THAT IS ANOTHER HISTORY
ART 6 - GOTHIC ART - ARCHITECTURE
Today we have to talk about Gothic art. Its origin can be found in the mid-twelfth century.
In those years Europe returned to flourish thanks to the expansion of cultivation areas and improvement of agricultural techniques.
The surplus of products and farmers made many people leave the countryside and again the big cities began to be important, what is known as urban revival.
It was in these cities where the bourgeois arose, a middle class free of the opinions of the feudal lords, dedicated to commerce and crafts.
And not only that. International trade, led mainly by the Hansa League, fairs such as Champagne and the Mediterranean routes, gave rise to the first financial activities, which we could call a precapitalism.
This bourgeoisie began to gain more and more power, especially in the Cortes or Parliaments that were emerging little by little, which was leaving behind the old feudal nobility.
On the other hand, as the Cluny had abandoned austerity, a new religious reform arrived at the hand of an order known as the Cister's, named because everything originated in the Citeaux Abbey, in Burgundy.
One of these reforming monks was San Bernardo de Claraval, who denounced the Romanesque decorative excesses in favor of a more austere, bright and also beautiful architecture.
This proto-Gothic occurred only in monasteries, and was a kind of transition between Romanesque and Gothic.
As always, these monks eventually lined up and ended up building churches as monumental and luxurious as the ones they had criticized.
"Always the same ... always the same"
In fact, this is going to be the time of the great cathedrals.
It is important to know that a cathedral is where it has its seat, or chair, a bishop or archbishop, who is the one who rules in a diocese or ecclesiastical province.
Under his command are the other Churches and Parishes of that territory, usually governed by a priest.
There are also the Collegiate, which are churches where a college of priests commands without belonging to the episcopal see.
Finally, we saw that the Basilica was the ancient Roman public constructions that were adapted during the Paleochristian era to Christian worship.
The name "basilica" is more honorary for having been an important place and being a recognized pilgrimage point.
In this context, on the Isle of France, this region here, the place dominated by the French kings, was where Gothic art originated.
It originated in the mid-twelfth century and lasted until the sixteenth century, when it was completely removed by the Renaissance, which had begun in Italy a century earlier. Although yes, in England the Gothic lasted much longer.
However. Why is Gothic art called Gothic if it has nothing to do with the Goths or with the Germans?
The name was invented by a 16th-century Italian historian named Giorgio Vasari, a bit derogatory, as opposed to Classical and Renaissance Art, which for him must have been the lemon pear.
The people of his time called the time before the Renaissance "Middle Ages" for that reason, because it was like a transitory period of darkness, where the glorious classical past of Greece and Rome went to the whore ...
and for Vasari, out of ignorance or what I know, Gothic art was a barbaric art. And that image would continue until Romanticism in the 19th century.
"The mother who bore..."
In the year 1144 approximately the construction of the Abbey of Saint-Denis very close to Paris, where the French kings used to go to pray, and which is now a basilica, was completed.
Its double ambulatory with radiant chapels and its open, light and bright headboard was the origin of the Gothic architecture, and from here it expanded throughout Europe. Let's see the main features of this art.
The plant of Gothic architecture, in general, will be very similar to that of Romanesque, with Latin cross plants but with shorter transept, and then turn and similar ambulatory.
However, some differences are found in the header, which evolved to more polygonal forms.
In architecture we will find 2 very important principles: elevation and luminosity.
"Oh please, no"
To achieve greater slenderness and greater height, the churches set aside the barrel vaults and the half-point arches typical of the Romanesque
to move to the use of pointed arches or ogival, which gave slenderness and verticality to the building; and the vaults of crucería, that were like more picudos towards the center.
The miniarquitos that cross these vaults are the nerves, and the cloths that close the spaces between the nerves are called complements.
This vault was much lighter than the barrel, and all that weight was unloaded through pillars and baquetones until reaching the buttresses outside.
And to increase the effectiveness of these buttresses, what was done was to separate them from the wall through the buttresses, since what they were doing was transmitting the lateral thrusts towards them.
And then the buttresses used to be finished off with a pinnacle over them. That it was not only decorative, eye, but it helped counteract the oblique thrust of the buttresses.
And you will say: "What a mess of downloads and moves." And yes, you are right, but thanks to this, the cathedrals could be much higher and most importantly,
the walls could be replaced by large windows that flooded the interior of the churches of light and color, not as in the Romanesque. This row of stained glass on the sides was known as claristory.
As you can see, Gothic architecture was very bright. Why is it associated with Darketa rock and dark and gloomy places?
That was a thing of Romanticism that began at the end of the 18th century, where many novels related to ghosts and supernatural movements were set in ancient Gothic castles and ruins of the time, and that word was associated with the dark and dark.
"My style like ... goth ... grunge ... punk ... what else?"
"You're like a goat"
The facades were decorated by sack, and towers continued to be installed on the sides, but now they incorporated a thing called a spire, which was a crowded move on top similar to the pinnacles.
The windows and rosettes also stand out, that is, generally circular front windows; and there were also gables, angled moldings placed on the arches of the covers.
Without a doubt, the most famous Gothic cathedral of all is the Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral, started in 1163 with a Norman Romanesque style and which was finished in 1345 with a Gothic style.
Its plant is a Latin cross, but with the head wrapped in a double ambulatory that extends to the side aisles. In total there were 5 ships with a height of almost 33 meters.
The interior is very bright, thanks to its windows, and highlights cylindrical pillars that separate the ships.
The vaults and the decoration in capitals and others are still quite sober, but that would soon change in this artistic style.
And if you didn't find out, this church had a fire a few months ago, but hey, nothing serious happened.
"Disperse, come on ... there's nothing to see here"
Other examples within the twelfth century in France are the Laon Cathedral or the Noyón Cathedral. All this is what is called preclassic Gothic style.
However, it is in the thirteenth century where we say that the fever begins with the Gothic, and peta everywhere.
From the Classic Gothic it is necessary to highlight the Chartres Cathedral, built on a Romanesque church that caught fire and of which only the western facade remained.
In it we find a cruise almost almost in the center of the plant, a grandstand completely disappeared and replaced by stained glass, and huge towers flanking the main entrance.
Also important are the Reims Cathedral and the Amiens Cathedral, both being the tallest in all of France, over 50 meters high.
Another important of this classic Gothic was the Cathedral of Bourges, with 40 meters high and without any kind of transept.
In 1240 the radiant Gothic begins, which sought to gain verticality and height, as well as lightness and richness, kicking austerity.
This can be seen well in Sainte-Chapelle, or the Holy Chapel of Paris, located next to the royal palace and built in radiant Gothic style around 1250 by Pierre de Montreuil.
There are practically no walls, and they are all stained glass windows.
A century later, already in the fourteenth century, this radiant Gothic would evolve to the flamboyant Gothic, which is characterized by a more exuberant decoration and with forms like flames on the covers.
Some examples of this style are the Cathedral of Tours, in the Loire Valley, and the Rouen Cathedral, in Normandy.
As in the Romanesque, Gothic architecture is not going to be only religious. We can find some gothic style castles,
but what began to become more fashionable were urban palaces, residences of nobles and high bourgeoisie, and of course, universities, the great centers of studies that were expanding through Medieval Europe, especially since the thirteenth century.
Throughout the video we will see many examples.
Let's move to England now. I already told in the previous video that Durham Cathedral, built in the 11th century, was the precedent of this English Gothic.
Little by little, more elements from France were exported, and this is what we call primitive Gothic or 1st English Gothic, originated in the 12th century, which was influenced by the Anglo-Norman Romanesque.
Among the best examples to highlight are the Lincoln Cathedral, with tudor-style arches separating the ships; Salisbury Cathedral, and Canterbury Cathedral.
In the mid-thirteenth century came the decorative or ornamental Gothic, with more curved and undulating ornaments. In the vaults more nerves arise, and also in the stained glass windows, what is called tracerías.
Highlights the Wells Cathedral, built in Somerset, England, with these inverted arches, or scissors arches, which are unique and that support the transept tower.
By the way, we will find these transepts many times in the middle of the church, and not towards the head.
Others are the Lichfield Cathedral, with three spire-topped towers, the York Cathedral, or the Éxeter Cathedral.
Finally, the last stage of English Gothic was the perpendicular Gothic, which began in the mid-fourteenth century. In it the vertical line predominates over the curve, and the walls are replaced by large windows.
In addition, the tudor arch is generalized, and also the fan or webbed vault, whose nerves open from the supports and which was almost exclusive to England.
And also the pillar of beams, whose baquetones give name to the style. This looks great in Gloucester Cathedral, whose cloister has ever come out in the Harry Potter movies.
The best examples of this are found in the chapel of King's College at the University of Cambridge.
Another university built in this style was the University of Oxford.
There is also the Chapel of St. George located within the grounds of Windsor Castle. Is this from here.
And to end England is the Chapel of Henry VII, located as if it were a giant absidiolus that leaves Westminster Abbey,
which by the way is also gothic and is next to Big Ben and the British Parliament, which are neo-Gothic, but for that we still need a lot.
In Germany the Gothic arrived a little later, at the end of the 13th century, and basically copied the French Gothic.
We have the Church of St. Elizabeth of Marburg, which was one of the first Gothic Germans, or the Cologne Cathedral, which was not finished until 1880.
In this German Gothic, the height of the churches and the decoration with needles, arches and baquetones stand out, as is the case of the frontispiece (or facade) of the Strasbourg Cathedral, a city that is now France but not before.
The Church of Ulm is the tallest in the world thanks to its spire over 160 meters high.
"It's fucking cool"
In addition, the starry vaults and reticular vaults, in which the nerves draw a rhomboid network, stand out.
Already in the fourteenth century the Floor Plan is disseminated, in which all ships have equal height.
That is the case of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, in Austria, where its roof with polychrome tiles attracts attention, but that is much later.
Over time this German Gothic spread to the north, center and east of Europe.
The order of the Cister took the Gothic to Italy in the early thirteenth century, the first Italian Gothic construction being the Abbey of Fossanova, but it was not very successful and did not take root. The Italians remained quite classic.
It tended to horizontality, to the semicircular arch, to the absence of buttresses, to small windows ...
The best example of this would be the Siena Cathedral, started in 1284 by Giovanni Pisano and built in black and white marble.
Not only on the facade, but also inside, and even has an octagonal shaped dome.
Also at this time began the construction of palaces, such as the Communal Palace of Siena, which is now the town hall and where the Torre del Mangia stands out.
And the Vecchio Palace in Florence is also important, also with a high-rise tower.
This of the towers was very typical of the Italians, in fact, in Bologna the most powerful families did not stop raising towers to see who had it bigger.
It is thought that they made more than 100.
"I don't know what others will say, but I like them big"
The Cathedral of Florence, or Santa María del Fiore, or de las Flores, was started in 1296 by Arnolfo di Cambio.
It was not finished until the year 1471, during the Renaissance, when they put the famous Brunelleschi Dome.
In the region of Umbria is the Cathedral of Orvieto, which is famous for its mosaics on the facade on episodes of the Bible.
During the fourteenth century we have a lot of civil architecture like the Doge's Palace in Venice, built around 1340,
and Ca d'Oro, a mansion that stands out for its window tracery,
"That we are going to drown"
as well as the Contarini Palace, with a curious spiral staircase.
But perhaps the greatest Gothic work in Italy was the Cathedral of Milan, begun in 1386 and not completed until 1965, and which has 5 naves, the central 45 meters high, being one of the tallest Gothic churches and Great of the world.
Finally, of course, we have to talk about Gothic architecture in Spain.
Here, at the end of the 12th century, we find proto-Gothic buildings such as the Cathedral of Avila, the Cathedral of Lleida or the Cathedral of Tudela.
Further on, already in the thirteenth century, we already have a more consolidated Gothic, as is the case of the Burgos Cathedral, which was started in 1221.
This construction highlights the starry vault of the Condestable chapel, which was built during the fifteenth century.
Another important cathedral was that of Toledo, with a certain Islamic influence, double ambulatory, no transept and a single tower, when there were two.
Finally there is also the León Cathedral, perhaps the most French of all, and influenced by those of Reims and Amiens.
From the fourteenth century there will be a lot of Gothic in the area of Levante, especially in Catalonia.
Catalan Gothic will be characterized by its horizontality, that is, low height, and by its sobriety in the ornamental theme.
We have, for example, the Monastery of Pedralbes, in Barcelona, with a unique and small nave ... and simple header without an ambulatory.
Nothing to do with the Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Santa Eulalia in Barcelona, of larger dimensions and three ships of almost the same height.
Another example is the Basilica of Santa María del Mar, also in Barcelona, erected by the city's guilds.
And in Palma de Mallorca, in the Balearic Islands, we would find a cathedral characterized by its flat treasure and with the largest rosette in the Gothic world.
Finally there would be the Cathedral of Santa Maria de Valencia, which also contains Romanesque, Renaissance and Baroque elements.
Meanwhile, at the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Gothic will resurface in the Crown of Castile, with cathedrals such as Murcia or Oviedo.
The decorative fever of Hispanic Gothic broke out during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, what was called Plateresque or Elizabethan Gothic, transitory between Gothic and Renaissance art, and which could also be called Flemish Hispanic.
This period highlights the starry vaults and the ogee arches.
Many foreign architects traveled to the Crowns of Castile and Aragon, as was the case of Frenchman Jean Guas,
who built the Church of San Juan de los Reyes, completed in 1495 in Toledo and part of a monastery that was built at the death of Guas.
The Infantado Palace in Guadalajara was also his work, and stands out for a courtyard with arches decorated with sculptures, shields and lions.
Another architect was Juan de Colonia, author of the Church of the Cartuja de Miraflores, in Burgos, with a single nave and a starry dome.
Then there is the Alcazar de Segovia, the residence of the Catholic Monarchs, which is impressive,
which stands out for a huge tribute tower and a completely irregular floor, since it adapted to the hill on which it was built.
And you could not miss the Cathedral of Seville, which was built on the Aljama mosque in Seville and of which only the minaret remains, and which is the current Giralda.
During the sixteenth century there were still some Gothic buildings on the Iberian Peninsula, but the Renaissance was gaining more and more ground.
The last temples of this style were the New Cathedral of Salamanca, from 1512, or the facade of the Salamanca University, which had been founded in 1218.
I would also highlight the Cathedral of Segovia, finished in 1525 by Juan and Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.
And to finish the architecture we will see some random examples of other places in Europe.
In Belgium they would highlight the Church of Santa Gúdula in Brussels ... and the Church of Our Lady of Bruges, which is not that there were witches, but was built in the city of Bruges, in Flanders,
where was also the City Hall of Bruges, flowery Gothic style.
In Portugal stands out the Monastery of Batalha and the Jeronimos de Belem, located in Lisbon.
Denmark is the Roskilde Cathedral, and in Norway that of Nídaros.
In Bohemia we have the St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague, and in Poland the Krakow Cathedral stands out.
As you can see, unlike the Romanesque, this Gothic spread everywhere, and as this has been very long, in the next video we will know the sculpture and the Gothic painting, with a rock as cool as El Bosco.