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Astronomers Might've Found a White Hole

[Music]

the existence of black holes was

predicted over a century ago with

nothing but math equations now we've

taken the first photo of one but black

holes still hold plenty of secrets like

they're even more mysterious mirror

twins white holes really imagine if we

could record a black hole on video watch

it pull in and consume any matter that

gets too close even light itself

now take this recording and play it

backwards this is what a white hole

should be the black hole's

pushing away and matter spewing

counterpart we'll bring it back down to

earth go to your kitchen sink turn on

the faucet and see how water flows down

into the drain this drain is a black

hole

it's attraction is too powerful for a

stream of water to escape but now focus

on the stream itself where it meets the

surface of the sink it bursts in all

directions with such power that the

water can't flow back this is what a

white hole should be if you could blast

off into space in a rocket you'd meet

the biggest challenge the Earth's

gravity won't let you go except if your

engines are extremely powerful and

you're going fast enough to reach what's

called escape velocity the black hole's

gravity is so immense that escape

velocity becomes completely unreachable

it's higher than the speed of light and

nothing in the universe can go faster

than that take this force of gravity and

switch the direction now it pushes out

instead of pulling in just like it can't

escape a black hole's power light can't

get close to a white hole that's odd

because a white hole has mass so it

should have gravity like any space

object white hole should attract other

matter to them just like the Sun keeps

the planets floating around it or the

earth keeps your feet on the ground

a black hole has outer borders called

event horizons within them gravity is

the most powerful

if something goes beyond this limit it

won't ever escape a white hole's event

horizon would be an impenetrable border

not letting anything inside a black hole

is constantly feeding on the matter

around it huge clouds of gas and dust

that don't get pulled into the hole end

up swirling around it they form a

luminous accretion disk flattened like

that because it's spinning so fast

unlike black holes they're white twins

probably don't rotate so they wouldn't

have these halo like disks there's no

evidence that white holes as we imagine

them actually lurk somewhere in the

universe so far they're purely a

mathematical theory plus a massive

object constantly spewing matter would

have to be noticeable yet they're

nowhere to be found but there are

theories of what a white hole could be

remember learning in school matter

cannot be created or destroyed it means

the total amount of mass and energy in

the universe is constant for example

when you burn a log everything in the

end the soot ashes and gases will equal

the materials put into it and no matter

what happens to some particle it still

contains information about its original

state now this doesn't sit well with

black holes scientists know that all the

mass they have evaporates with time

because black holes leak energy but even

if a black hole lost all its mass it

still won't give back the information

about everything it consumed where does

all that material go we're used to

thinking that the source of a black hole

might be a singularity in its center

this is a single point so small yet so

massive and dense that physics and math

just break down it's almost like it

tears a hole in reality itself some

astronomers think that instead of a

singularity as a dense object in the

center there must be an opening deep

inside the black hole it might lead to

another point in the universe or to a

different universe entirely and what

could be on that other end is a white

hole this would solve the problem with

information it simply goes somewhere

else entirely instead of just

disappearing another idea

says that a Whitehall may be a brief

period of a black holes lifecycle it's

ending if black holes steadily lose

their mass they must eventually lose it

all and disappear but in this last stage

of their life they might become white

halls this would explain why we can't

detect them since it's almost impossible

to find an evaporated black hole their

evaporation simply takes too long

we know how black holes appear a star

much bigger than the Sun reaches an age

when its own gravity makes it collapse

in on itself in a supernova burst it's

much harder to understand how a white

hole would form unless it's also the

result of aging but of a black hole

instead of a star the first black holes

in the history of the universe formed

soon after the Big Bang happened and

those ancient things are great

candidates to bring about white holes

this idea also makes astronomers think

that white holes might be teeny-tiny

smaller than the wavelength of light and

those are the size of bacteria this

would make them invisible to us

nothing would react with them because of

their repelling force and still they'd

have a certain mass in other words

they'd be good candidates as the

mysterious dark matter

it makes up 85% of the universe yet we

can't observe it some say the Big Bang

itself is suspiciously similar to what a

white hole should be a tiny dot that

suddenly bursts out and spreads in all

directions producing all the matter that

will one day become stars galaxies

planets and life in 2006 a NASA

satellite caught an extremely powerful

gamma-ray burst those are the most

luminous energetic explosions known in

the universe but this one didn't come

from an area of space where such bursts

are expected his properties were also

unusual for both gamma-ray bursts coming

from supernova and neutron stars merging

while other bursts last just a few

seconds this one went on for a minute

and a half one of the ideas about its

origins

just that astronomers observed a real

white hole still the most probable

answer to the mystery of white holes is

that our calculations and predictions

about the nature of the universe aren't

precise enough in this case white holes

are just mathematical models that are

cool to play with and think about one

thing is certain some 50 years ago

black holes only existed on paper maybe

white holes will surprise us in the

future too