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How Are Seeds formed? Animated POLLINATION and FERTILIZATION Tutorial - Botany

Hello Friends, Today we will look into the Concept of Seed Formation in a Plant and also

learn about Male and Female Reproductive Organs of a Plant, Pollination and Fertilization

process similar to humans and animals, and in the end about Artificial Pollination.

Plants reproduce using eggs (ova) and sperms, just like humans and animals.

Male plants release pollen grains, which fertilize the ovaries.

The fertilized ovaries develop into seeds which are like zygote and embryo, which are

either dispersed naturally either by wind or animals or if planted into soil by humans

grow into new plants.

So keeping this concept in mind for the formation of seeds or to collect your own seeds from

your garden and for plant propagation, you must also know few more concepts and terms

of botany in gardening.

The Flower: The flower is the reproductive unit of many

plants.

To understand the reproductive organs of a plant, the parts of the flower should be known

which include petals, sepals, The Carpels and Stamens.

The External Parts of the flower are the Petals and Sepals.

Plants or Flowers can be unisexual or bisexual also called hermaphrodites similar to certain

genders in humans, Bisexual (also called Perfect Flowers) meaning their flowers have both male

and female parts in the same flower.

And Unisexual (also called Imperfect Flowers), meaning they have only one ograns � either

male or female.

Most Flowers are bisexual, and we shall study the anatomy of a flower and different parts

of a flower in this illustrated diagram.

What parts are The Male Reproductive Organs: Stamens are the male reproductive parts of

flowers.

A stamen consists of an anther � also called pollen boxes (which produces pollen) and the

filament.

The pollen consists of the male reproductive cells and these fertilize ovules.

What Parts are The Female Reproductive Organs: The pistil is the collective term for the

carpel.

Each carpel or the female part includes a stigma (which receives the pollen during fertilization)

and a style (a tube on top of the ovary).

And an ovary (where the ovules are produced; ovules are the female reproductive cells,

or the eggs).

So that was the illustration on the reproductive parts of a flower.

1.

Pollination & Fertilization: Pollination is the process by which pollen grains are transferred

to the female reproductive organs of a plant, thereby enabling fertilization to take place.

This can be compared to Copulation in animals and Fertilization is the same terms used for

formation of zygote in animals and humans.

Pollination can be either Natural or Artificially done by humans.

In case of Bisexual or Perfect Flowers, pollination happens within the same plant and then seeds

are formed and this is called Self Pollination.

If this happens from one plant to a different plant its called Cross Pollination.

Well we will not go into the depths of these.

The Point you must note is you must not prevent or drive away or even kill the natural pollinators

or insects like honey bees and butterflies which are useful agents in gardening and plant

reproduction.

These insects are called Pollen Vectors.

These insects like honey bees and butterflies fly from flower to flower collecting sweet

nectar.

As they visit flowers, they spread pollen around, depositing it on some stigmas.

After a male's pollen grains have landed on the stigma during fertilization, pollen tubes

develop within the style, burrowing down to the ovary, where the sperm fertilizes an ovum

(an egg cell), in the ovule.

After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed in the ovary.

Also Artificial pollination is an interesting topic in gardening.

Here we humans intervene with the natural pollination process.

We take out the pollen grains or plant sperms from one flower and transfer to another, allowing

the pollen to fertilize the ovaries and create seeds that will develop into fruits and then

new plants.

We shall not go into details of these at present and our main purpose of this video is, specially

for newbie gardeners, to clear the concept of How plants reproduce and how seeds are

formed in plants and this is called sexual propagation.

Asexual propagation is another topic � most of us grow plants from cuttings and this is

the best example of asexual propagation.

Well, Folks that�s all in todays video.

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Happy Gardening.