Relief print making origins started in hand-printing
meaning no press was required.
You are able as an artist or a commercial printer
printing text able to transfer the image
by hand by use of a baren. A baren is a small
object that allows you to apply even pressure
larger than that of your hand.
In this case the block has been inked, and
a thin sheet of paper is laid over top of the block.
With gentle pressure, apply to the block.
You can transfer the ink to the sheet of paper.
A baren is typically used on thin sheets of paper.
The heavier weight papers that most artist use today
are too thick for hand to be able to apply pressure all the
way through that sheet for an even transfer of the image.
You can check the impression to ensure you got a cool even pull.
Wood cuts use a flat piece of wood in a case that we'll
demonstrate today. There will be a cabinet grade
plywood which is extremely dimensionally stable,
but still has a beautiful grain.
The grain of the wood and wood cut is one reason that
artists utilize the material.
The grain provides a different effect, in the black areas
of the print.
Contrast to something like linoleum cuts,
where the black ares are totally flat.
A wood cut, the grain will affect just how heavily black the
black areas of the print can be printed.
The grain has a visual effect that can often be used to an artist advantage.
When cutting on a wood block, you use a different set of
tools much similar to that of a wood carver or a
a cabinet maker.
These tools provide the artist and the opportunity
to have a variety of marks, widths, and
depths from which to work with.
In relief print making a wood cut block is prepared first by
toning the block with an Indian ink wash or
a wash of a jet black film ink.
This provides a black ground on the surface
from which to easily see to removed areas
of wood, to reveal the drawing in a way that
allows the artist to understand what is happening,
and where their drawing is going.
Once the block has been stained or toned,
the drawing can be transferred through with
the aid of an iron oxide or carbon paper transfer.
Once that paper transfer has been made,
the artist now has the choice of deciding which
form of white line or black line composition
White line is revealing the image through thin
white lines in a black field. That would be
cutting away those white lines to leave the upper
area or black field to take ink.
The opposite way of approaching the image area
is what we call black line. Which is removing
the majority of the information or wood to reveal
thin raised black lines to accept the ink for
transfer to paper.
It is the balance of white line and black line
that creates a sense of depth or three-dimensionality.
Often an artist will have a shift of white line
to black line to be able to reveal a more
representational or dimensional space.
Once the image has been cut into the block,
the block is prepared for printing.
Ink is rolled over the surface of the block,
placed on the press, and past through transferring
ink to paper.
Linoleum block printing or a liner cut is a
form of relief print making. It relies on
linoleum very much similar to what would be in
someones home. A linoleum tile, as being a very
flat consistent surface, that you can gouge away
the non-image area. Linoleum block prints
provide a very specific look, which would be
something that has a flat black area.
The type of linoleum block print making that we do
today is very affordable and accessible.
The materials are easy to use and easy for people
to begin understanding the basic concept of print
making. Because of it's affordability and ease
of use, it can be used by a variety of different
people all across the world. To have a very quick
transfer of an idea to a block that can then be
replicated to print making.
Approaching a linoleum block print has very
similar to that in approaching of a wood cut.
The material in itself can be toned just like
a wood block is toned, to provide a black ground.
It makes it easier to see what it is your cutting.
Linoleum in of itself, in a material,does not necessarily
need that, because it's fairly easy to see what
it is that your doing.
You can lay out your drawing ahead of time
with a marker, or also a carving, or iron-oxide
transfer. In this case I will approach the block
with the material blank and develop the image as I go.
Also like a wood cut, if I remove material, I can not be replace.
Whatever I cut away will be white.
Whatever remains will be black.
The tools we use for linoleum cuts are very similar
to those of a wood cut. The difference is the
type of metal that's used. Linoleum is a much
softer material and does not dull the tools
nearly as quickly as wood dulls the tools.
A high carving steel is not necessarily required
for doing linoleum cut. You can see the different
shapes here. A V gouge and U tip. Very similar
to that of a wood cut.
These are the tools that we use for linoleum cuts,
and the tools that we have for wood cut are
very specific. Anything that can remove material
is a tool that can be used. An artist may use
a crowbar, screwdriver, a nail, and all of
these things that mark or [mar 05:53] the surface
will provide image area.
Once you drawn a basic image on the linoleum
block you can begin cutting. In this case
I've used some simple text but remembering that
this will be printed in reverse. Everything on
the block must be backwards.
So for printing a relief block, that's a linoleum
cut, it's the same approach as to printing a wood
cut. We want an even application and anchor across
the entire block. In this case, because the surface
of the linoleum will print a flat black.
We're insuring that we make a very even
application with no texture.