a

Ionic Bonding Introduction

this video is an introduction to ionic

bonds and ionic bonding don't know

anything about these things or you feel

a little bit rusty it's no big deal

because we're going to start from

scratch so the ionic bonds are one type

of chemical bond chemical bonds are like

glue that holds atoms together okay like

here two atoms that are bonded together

they're connected they're glued now

ionic bonds are the type of chemical

bond that hold together metal atoms with

nonmetal atoms okay so if you look at a

periodic table there's this big thick

staircase over on this side and this

staircase

separates the metals which are all the

elements on this side from the nonmetals

which are mostly elements on this side

so whenever we have a chemical that has

a metal connected to a nonmetal that's

held together by ionic bonds so some

examples are silver chloride magnesium

iodide or aluminum oxide each one of

these chemicals have a metal this one

this one or this one from this side of

the periodic table with a nonmetal this

one this one or this one from this side

so ionic bonds and all of these because

there are metals and nonmetals connected

together okay so now we're going to talk

a little bit more about the how and why

that's going on with a bonding here

right it's like how do these atoms

actually connect together what's holding

them that's we're going to talk about

next okay so to learn more about ionic

bonds we are going to focus on a

chemical called sodium chloride sodium

chloride is a fancy scientific name for

table salt it's the stuff that you put

on your food so sodium chloride is made

of two types of atoms we got sodium

here's its symbol from the periodic

table and here is a sodium atom right

here and sodium chloride is also made of

chlorine or chloride I'll tell you what

the difference between those is in a

minute but you don't have to worry about

it right now

and here is

here's a chlorine atom now sodium

chloride happens when these two atoms

come together when they're glued

together by ionic bonds but the atoms

that I have right here they're not glued

together they're just kicking it over

here they have nothing to do with each

other so I want to talk about what

happens to get these separate atoms

connected and glued together like these

how we go from this to this I'm going to

tell you the kicker I'm going to tell

you the end of the story now so you can

follow it through as we talk the reason

why these two atoms are connected is

because they end up getting electrical

charges okay this atom is going to end

up getting a negative charge and this

atom is going to end up getting a

positive charge what two oppositely

charged things like to do they like to

attract and so because these things get

different electrical charges they are

going to be held together by those

different charges attracting okay so

let's look at the steps that we have to

take to go from this to this the first

step is pretty much what I got right

here we're starting with two separate

atoms that aren't connected we got the

metal out of the sodium here and the

nonmetal atom the chlorine over here now

the first thing that happens on the road

to an ionic bond is that the sodium atom

gives one of its electrons to the

chlorine atom here's the electron moving

between the two of them from the sodium

to the chlorine now this electron this

electron moving will change the charges

of these two atoms okay that's what

happens in next step sodium gives away

one of its electrons to the chlorine so

it loses one electron it has one fewer

electron and that's going to give it a

positive charge because it lost an

electron but chlorine gained one of the

electrons from sodium so it's going to

become negative it's going to get a

negative charge because of that extra

electron so now these two atoms

take on electrical charges and what do

we call atoms that have charges

we call them ions this one's a positive

ion sodium becomes positive chlorine

becomes negative now here's where the

difference between chlorine and chloride

comes chlorine is what we call the

chlorine atom when it's neutral so up

here this nonmetal atom chlorine just

hanging out here is chlorine zero charge

but down here after it's received one of

the electrons from sodium it gets a

negative charge it becomes a negative

ion and now we change its name just a

little bit

we call it chloride so it's the same

atom chlorine and chloride they're the

same atom it's just chlorine is the

version of chlorine with a neutral

charge zero charge and chloride is the

version of chlorine that just has a 1

minus charge and it got that 1 minus

charge because sodium gave one of its

electrons to chlorine turning it into

the negative chloride now people often

ask why does sodium give its electron to

chlorine we'll talk about that in the

next video it's a great question but

anyway a transfer of electrons takes

place between these atoms giving this

one a positive charge and this one a

negative charge and what the opposite

charge is like to do they like to stick

together and so this is what we end up

with the two atoms glued together

because they're opposite charges are

holding them together ok so there are

really three important steps in ionic

bond forming for the example of sodium

chloride here's what they are the first

step is an electron transfers from

sodium to chlorine sodium gives one of

its electrons to chlorine sodium loses

an electron so that gives it a positive

charge this becomes positive and

chlorine because it has gotten an extra

electron gets a negative charge and they

both turn in two ions atoms with a

charge and since chlorine became

negative we call it chloride and then

the last step after the ions

is that the oppositely charged atoms the

oppositely charged atoms stick together

because of their opposite charges so

it's those opposite charges that form

that are the glue holding the atoms

together okay so this is just the very

basics of how ionic bonds form we

haven't really talked about details why

the electrons move and that kind of

thing that's what we're going to do in

the next video

so to go a little bit more in-depth

check that out but before you do just

make sure that you understand these

steps these basic steps of how ionic

bonds form and then once you're good

with this we'll go from there