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What is a Coordinate Covalent Bond?

so what exactly is a coordinate covalent

bond a coordinate covalent bond is a

covalent bond that's formed where one

atom donates both electrons to make that

bond it donates a pair of electrons so

let me an example of what is not a

coordinate covalent bond so let's say if

we have two bromine atoms each contains

seven valence electrons and let's see

what type of bond is formed when two

bromine atoms get together they will

both donate only one electron to form a

bond between them now because the

electrons are being shared

it's a covalent bond however because

each element or each atom rather donated

only one electron it's not a coordinate

covalent bond it's simply a covalent

bond now let's say if we have a lewis

base in this case NH dream and we're

gonna react it with a Lewis acid and the

Lewis acid I'm gonna use is gonna be bf3

boron trifluoride now a Lewis base is an

electron pair donor and a Lewis acid is

an electron pair acceptor so ammonia can

donate a pair of electrons to form a

bond between nitrogen and boron so we're

gonna get a product that looks like this

now this particular bond between

nitrogen blonde is a coordinate covalent

bond because the two electrons in this

bond came from only one atom and that

makes it according to covalent bond now

the reason why nitrogen attacks boron is

because nitrogen has a partial negative

charge it's more electronegative than

hydrogen and boron has a partial

positive charge and so there is an

electrostatic force of attraction that

accelerate these two elements toward

each other and so they react with each

other now the next example is a metal

ligand example so I'm gonna use ammonia

again it has a lone pair and it still

has a partial negative charge and I'm

gonna react it with AG plus the silver

cation so nitrogen with its partial

negative charge is going to be attracted

to silver because it has a positive

charge opposite charges attract and so

once again nitrogen is gonna donate a

pair of electrons it's acting as a lewis

base

silver is still the Lewis acid but in

this example we have a metal ligand

interaction and so you can draw the

product like this if you want to or you

could write it as AG nh3 plus so this

bond is a coordinate covalent bond

now another ammonia molecule can

interact with AG again form in this

product so this is known as a complex

ion it's an ion the metal ion that has

ligands the NH trio is the ligand that's

attached to the metal ion so in this

complex ion we have a coordination

number of two and so that's it for this

video so remember a coordinate covalent

bond is a covalent bond where the bond

is formed as a result of one atom

donating a pair of electrons or both

electrons to make that bond and anytime

you have a Lewis acid Lewis base

interaction

or if you have a metal ligand

interaction the bonds that form as a

result of those interactions is

considered a coordinate covalent bond as

the two examples that we've run over in

this video illustrate so that's it for

this video thanks for watching and have

a good day