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French bulldog coat color genetics explained (Recessive and Dominant Genes)

hey everybody James with love my pups

and today we're going to do a follow-up

on some previous videos that I've done

on coat-collar genetics so I'm in the

Frenchie world so French bulldogs is

what I do but this is for clickable -

you know just general genetics in

general specifically dogs and certainly

French's okay so there's this situation

where there's recessive genes and

dominant genes and I've never really

covered this and it's very important to

understanding how to netis works so you

get let's talk about a Frenchie let's

talk about a Frenchie that is

potentially going to be brown chocolate

brown or call it brown and let's go put

up the parents of this dog here's the

dad and here's the mum okay every body

has two genes that they got from their

parents one from their mother one from

their father to do with all traits that

you have your eye color your hair color

you know the length of your fingers

they're all controlled by genes and you

get one from your mom and you get one

from your dad and when you have a child

you give one of those two out to your

offspring and then your spouse also does

the same thing so we're gonna look at

chocolate so this now there's dominant

and recessive genes and that's the what

we're really talking about today so in

the brown gene there are two

possibilities there is the dominant gene

so always written in a large capital

letter this is the dominant gene and

there is the recessive gene there's two

variations of the gene you have to have

one or the other or both so the dominant

gene is always expressed well not always

but in most cases the recessive the

excuse me the dominant gene is expressed

the recessive gene is only expressed if

you've got two copies of it so what the

heck am I talking about here alright so

let's look

dad and let's make the dad have two

copies of recessive Brown and we'll make

them two copies at sorry of dominant

brown and mum has two copies of

recessive brown so the dominant gene

always expresses itself in this case to

be chocolate or brown you have to have

two copies this is a chocolate dog it

has two copies mommy's chocolate as

opposed to dad who has two copies of the

dominant gene he is not chocolate okay

so now we are going to take those two

parents and we're gonna have some

offspring what happens okay so every in

this case puppy has to get one copy of

what's called the allele this is each of

these that allele don't get to word on

term lodge this is really not so

important but basically here's the genes

each one of these is allele each

offspring gets one copy of each parent

so they end up with two copies and that

ends up being what they end up looking

like so it's a 50/50 coin toss which one

does a puppy get is completely arbitrary

but they get one so okay what can they

get from death well guess what

both these alleles are identical he

always gives out the dominance chocolate

Dean for a non chocolate dog mum on the

other hand only has two copies of the

recessive gene she is chocolate and

every time she has to give out a copy of

the recessive chocolate gene so this dog

and by the way when we draw this out we

always put the dominance large letter

first just by convention so what is this

dog this dog

remember the dominant gene is expressed

and that is what's called by the way the

phenotype the phenotype is the think of

Fino is physical fino is physically what

the dog looks like Simpson has a copy of

dominant non chokolate this is a non

chocolate dog but it does carry a copy

of recessive chocolates

processive Brown and it by the way can

produce some chocolate dogs in the

future and we'll see how that's going to

happen in a moment so the phenotype is a

non chocolate dog but the genotype which

is its genes the genotype of this dog

does carry a copy carries a copy of the

recessive gene I was gonna pull up

recess it does Tori a copy of the

recessive gene alright so let's get this

off the board and let's now take this

chocolate non chocolate dog with a copy

of recessive and give that to Mum so we

took that puppy and we read it back to

hopefully not its dad but you know

that's fine

alright so here is the mum so now what

happens when these two are married

together so we do a thing called punk

square punnett square we draw a box and

then we take a horizontal line to divide

it in two and a vertical line to divide

it in two and by convention we typically

put the male on the top so the male gets

a B here and a B here the female on the

side she gets a B little B so now what

we do we do we just look and see what

falls of these squares so we take this

one of this one what do we get we got to

be big being a big B that ends up being

a non chocolate double dominant non

troppo dog this one to this one same

thing again we get a non chocolate dog

this one to this one and this one to

this one and here we have what we get so

each of these boxes represents 25% of

the offspring so this is 1/4 1/4 1/4 so

in four puppies we'd get one two puppies

or half the puppies would be totally non

chocolate got nothing to a chocolate and

never have chocolate dog and 1/4 2/4 1/2

half the puppies would have one copy of

recessive chocolate and those dogs would

be then capable of producing chocolate

is let's find out how that would work so

let's take one of these guys and marry

that back to this other dog both of

these dogs now are dogs that carry one

copy of recessive Brown see we get this

time just be a bit more interesting so

what happens now

well these two genes 1/4 1/4 not

chocolate dogs and 1/4 carry recessive

chocolate and same thing happens over

here another quarter ends up being

chocolate non chocolate dogs who cares

carry the recessive chocolate gene and

here's the interesting one there we have

two non chocolate dogs that produced a

chocolate or brown puppy so what are the

ratios here so we get 1/4 for the dogs

don't have anything to do with chocolate

at all and 2/4 or 1/2 of the dogs are

still not chocolate but they carry a

copy of the recessive chocolate gene and

1/4 the dogs are passionate chocolate so

if you just look at this from the

outside look to their phenotype their

physical appearance 3/4 of the dogs

would not be chocolate one core of the

dogs would be chocolate now is that

gonna happen that top every time that

you put those two together will you get

exactly that out no it's like a towing

cost now if you toss a coin once do you

get a head or tail or who knows if you

toss it a coin a thousand times you are

very likely if it's a fair coin gonna

get about almost exactly 500 heads and 5

front cells in a large enough sample it

will come out like this in a small

sample of one or two puppies you know

you won't come out like this you could

get one chocolate or no chocolates but

the point here is is to understand how

the genes works and the important

takeaway from this is is the recessive

genes have to have two copies to make

the trade show up if you only have one

or no

copies a recessive gene you will not see

the trait in most cases so let's just do

a few more of these let's take a

different dog here and just for the sake

of it let's take two dogs ever this what

is well just do the examples we can

think of take two chocolate dog non

chocolate dogs dominant dominant

dominant genes not chocolate what do you

get here's your point square it's really

easy to see that you get an entire

litter of dogs that have nothing to do

with chocolate at all they don't have

any recessive chocolate genes they are

non chocolate dogs all right

likewise if you make these both of these

chocolate dogs what do you get you get a

whole litter of chocolate dogs every

time every time you get that and let's

go to the situation where you have one

dog that carries a copy of the recessive

and one dog carries a copy of the

recessive one copy recessive under

what'd you get you think we already did

this one you get a litter with one copy

one dog this chocolate two dogs that are

copy of it and one daughter has no copy

of chocolate at all

so this carries forward to whatever gene

you want to look at it doesn't just have

to be chocolate genes let's look at

eye-color in human beings well let's

just go with let's go with let's do this

let's go with the blue gene the blue

gene in a Frenchie is the dilution gene

and there's two versions of this there's

the dominant person which does not show

any blue and by the way dilution gene

what that means is is that you take a

dog and you make his fur color dilute it

down so a black dog becomes more opaque

in color it looks blue that's where the

blue comes from and there's the

recessive version of it and that is that

is the one that shows the blue that's

the receipt

version of it so let's see what happens

now so this this and we're gonna take a

dog that has one copy of blue won't look

blue because the dominant gene is

expressed so it doesn't show blue mum is

a blue dog she has to have two copies of

the recessive blue what happens when we

put these two together well we get on

this side we've got a down on top

Big D little D mum on the side small D

small D recessive blue D get that bat

get this this guess so what do we get we

get a litter of which one half of them

25 and 25 cents half of them ah it'll be

little D they are blue dogs and we get

one half that's I'm not blue dogs

because they have the dominant trait

that doesn't let express itself but they

can produce blue puppies down the road

so let's just do one more thing here

this is an interesting thing you can

kind of go backwards on some of this

stuff because if you know what the DNA

is of a puppy you've got a good idea

about what the DNA might be of the

parents so I'm gonna give you some

examples where you know things have gone

wrong so sometimes I'll have people call

me up and say oh my dog's this and my

puppy to that and it's like man that

can't possibly be right you've got

something wrong here give me an example

let's go to human beings let's talk

about blue eye color so blue eye color

on a human being is either Big B which

is not blue that the respects the

dominant version or little B which is

the recessive blue version that's the

blue version so let's take two blue-eyed

parents so since they're blue eyes they

both have to have two copies of the

recessive blue otherwise their eyes

would not be blue so here is the past

abilities so we do the punnett square

what the children look like all the

children have blue eyes if your parents

have set somebody here but if your

parents have both got blue eyes and you

don't have blue eyes somebody's not your

parent it's as simple as that sadly the

same thing you know is its if you've got

both parents have recessive genes for

something all the offspring have to have

the recessive genes so in this situation

here if somebody came up with brown eyes

from two blue-eyed parents then there's

something's gone wrong somewhere okay I

think I've done enough on this I'm going

to do some more videos and talk more

specifically about how this works in a

number of different colors and frenchs

so when we start talking about French's

here the colors we can have know we can

have a foreign dog we have a brindle dog

we have a cream dog you have a blue dog

we have a chocolate dog we can have a

Merle dog and what about this we can

have a pint dog these are all affected

by and if you do a DNA code color an

outside dog you can find out what genes

you've got these are all basically

independent of each other but they still

do interact in various different ways

so we're going to another video after

this that's going to talk about

specifically what happens if you end up

with you know for instance a cream dog a

blue dog what do you get and the answer

of this is it's kind of interesting

because a cream overrides everything it

ends up being a cream dog and why the

heck is that well we'll talk about that

in another video but for right now the

takeaway on this is is that you've got

recessive genes and dominant genes for a

particular gene trait like eye color

hair length to be expressed then you

have to have two copies of the recessive

for it to show if you only have one copy

it's in your genotype you can then have

offspring that shows that trait but you

don't show it yourself if you have two

copies of the dominant gene you just

flat don't express it at all and there

we go I hope you enjoy the video I know

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and again thank you very much and

bye-bye for love my pops bye everybody